Radiocarbon dating: radioactive carbon decays to nitrogen with a half-life of 5730 years.
In dead material, the decayed 14C is not replaced and its concentration in the object decreases slowly.
Because of the somewhat short half-life of 14C, radiocarbon dating is not applicable to samples with ages greater than about 50,000 years, because the remaining concentration would be too small for accurate measurement.
Thermoluminescence dating: this method is associated with the effect of the high energy radiation emitted as a result of the decay or radioactive impurities.
The TL dosimeters are being used in personnel, environmental and medical dosimetry. Kenney, Radiation Dosimeter Utilizing the Thermoluminescence of Lithium Fluoride, Science 4 August 1961: 333-334; R.
During the last two decades, OSL based dosimeters have also been used for various applications.
The TL/OSL dating is done from a quartz grain, which is collected from pottery or brick, by reading the TL-output.
Chang, Dependence of Glow Curve Structure on the Concentration of Dopants in Li F: Mg, Cu, Na, Si Phosphor, Rad.
The present review article contains various applications of Thermoluminescence. Kitamura, Calcium Sulfate Activated by Thulium or Dysprosium for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry, Health Phys. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-197108000-00016 N.
The phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL) or thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are widely used for measurement of radiation doses from ionizing radiations, viz. The applications of TL are initiated in the field of Geology followed by Archaeology, personal dosimetry, material characterization and many more to name.
Evaluation of the model for thermally stimulated luminescence and conductivity; reliability of trap depth determinations, 15 (1977) 1-27.
Woods, The evaluation of electron trapping parameters from conductivity glow curves in cadmium sulphide, Brit.
Search for photoluminescence dating:
Moharil, Synthesis of Ca SO4 : Dy, Ca SO4 : Eu3 and Ca SO4 : Eu2 phosphors, Radiat.